The Renaissance was a period of rebirth and transition in Europe. It began in Italy around the thirteenth century and spread gradually to the north and west across Europe for the next two centuries. It was a time of vast growth in learning and culture. Through contacts with the Arab world, the Western world was rediscovering many long-lost classical writings of the Greeks and Romans.
Wittenberg,engraving, 18 x 15 cm State and University Library, Dresden A Challenge to the Church in Rome In art history, the 16th century sees the styles we call the High Renaissance followed by Mannerism, and—at the end of the century—the emergence of the Baroque style.
For the history of art this has particular significance since the use and abuse of images was the topic of debate. In fact, many images were attacked and destroyed during this period, a phenomenon called iconoclasm. For example, Baptist is currently the largest denomination in the United States but there are many dozens more.
How did this happen? Where did they all begin? To understand the Protestant Reform movement, we need to go back in history to the early 16th century when there was only one church in Western Europe - what we would now call the Roman Catholic Church - under the leadership of the Pope in Rome.
Today, we call this "Roman Catholic" because there are so many other types of churches ie Methodist, Baptist, Lutheran, Calvinist, Anglican - you get the idea. The Church and the State So, if we go back to the yearthe Church what we now call the Roman Catholic Church was very powerful politically and spiritually in Western Europe and in fact ruled over significant territory in Italy called the Papal States.
But there were other political forces at work too. There was the Holy Roman Empire largely made up of German speaking regions ruled by princes, dukes and electorsthe Italian city-states, England, as well as the increasingly unified nation states of France and Spain among others.
The power of the rulers of these areas had increased in the previous century and many were anxious to take the opportunity offered by the Reformation to weaken the power of the papacy the office of the Pope and increase their own power in relation to the Church in Rome and other rulers. Keep in mind too, that for some time the Church had been seen as an institution plagued by internal power struggles at one point in the late s and s church was ruled by three Popes simultaneously.
Popes and Cardinals often lived more like kings than spiritual leaders. Popes claimed temporal political as well as spiritual power.
They commanded armies, made political alliances and enemies, and, sometimes, even waged war. Simony the selling of Church offices and nepotism favoritism based on family relationships were rampant. Clearly, if the Pope was concentrating on these worldly issues, there wasn't as much time left for caring for the souls of the faithful.
The corruption of the Church was well known, and several attempts had been made to reform the Church notably by John Wyclif and Jan Husbut none of these efforts successfully challenged Church practice until Martin Luther's actions in the early s.
Luther sparked the Reformation in by posting, at least according to tradition, his "95 Theses" on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany - these theses were a list of statements that expressed Luther's concerns about certain Church practices - largely the sale of indulgences, but they were based on Luther's deeper concerns with Church doctrine.
Before we go on, notice that the word Protestant contains the word "protest" and that reformation contains the word "reform" - this was an effort, at least at first, to protest some practices of the Catholic Church and to reform that Church, Indulgences The sale of indulgences was a practice where the church acknowledged a donation or other charitable work with a piece of paper an indulgencethat certified that your soul would enter heaven more quickly by reducing your time in purgatory.
If you committed no serious sins that guaranteed your place in hell, and you died before repenting and atoning for all of your sins, then your soul went to Purgatory - a kind of way-station where you finished atoning for your sins before being allowed to enter heaven.The reformation during the renaissance was mainly about reforming from the Catholic Church.
There were people who did not believe in the ideas of the church and decided to do something about it.
For example, Martin Luther, who posted the 95 Theses on the door of Wittiness’s All Saints Church. English Reformation Research Papers The English Reformation occurred during the reign of King Henry VIII that moved England towards a Protestantism that excited a direct revolt to the creation of an “evangelical program” within the walls of the government.
toward European women from the Renaissance through the Reformation (1 point). Example of acceptable description of continuity and change: • “There are some aspects of European women’s lives that change, starting in the Reformation.
Historical Periods the Renaissance, the Reformation and the Scientific Revolution and Emergence of the Modern Era In five pages this research paper considers how the modern era was the culmination of these 3 historical periods. The Protestant Reformation and Catholic Reformation of the 16th century greatly changed individual freedoms, individual liberties, and the influence of religion.
The start of the Protestant Reformation came when Martin Luther posted his 95 Thesis on the doors of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany. The Renaissance was believed to be restricted to Italy somewhere during the late 15th century. This great movement made a huge and advance difference in the world today and also back in the days.
It brought major contrasts with civilization in Europe during this time period.