The central nervous system plays a key and vital role in body orientation, coordination of bodily movements, assimilation of experience, and playing out the behaviors driven by instinct. The brainas intensely intelligent, detailed, and complexities along with the myriad of generous pathways of electrical communications complete the central nervous system. The brain is a much more significant system unto itself, with its complete abilities beyond the scope of current comprehension.
Peripheral nervous system Orchestrating Everyday Life If life is a symphony of activities—both voluntary activities, such as walking, talking, reading, or going to class, and involuntary activities, such as breathing, digesting food, pumping blood, and Nervous system diseases the nervous system is the orchestra that makes it all happen.
This system controls all of the adjustments people need to make in response to their environment, from basic functions such as sweating on a hot day to more sophisticated tasks such as concentrating attention during a particularly difficult lecture.
Without the nervous system and its conductor, the brain, people would not experience joy at seeing an old friend or automatically pull their hand away from a hot stove.
Injuries and diseases that affect Nervous system diseases nervous system not only de, monstrate how important the system is to everyday life but also show how the brain really determines who a person is as a human being.
The actor Christopher Reeve, most famous for his movie role as Superman in the s and s, was thrown from his horse and his spinal cord just below his brain was crushed.
Because of his spinal cord injury, he cannot move or breathe on his own, and machines now do some of his bodily functions for him. But because his brain was not injured, Reeve can talk, experience emotions, and plan and make decisions for example, after the accident he directed a movie.
Though being physically active is no longer a part of his identity, Reeve can still enjoy his roles as husband, father, friend, and filmmaker.
Since his injury he has participated in acting and directing projects, and has taken on a new role as spokesperson and advocate for spinal cord injury research.
A book he wrote about his experiences since his injury is aptly titled Still Me. Injuries and diseases of the brain are often devastating in a different way than are spinal cord injuries. They may affect movement, but they Positron emission tomography PET records electrical activity inside the brain.
These PET scans show what happens inside the brain when it is resting and when it is stimulated by words and by music. The red areas indicate concentrations of brain activity.
Notice how language and music appear to produce responses in opposite sides of the brain. President Ronald Reagan is now living with Alzheimer disease, which causes gradual deterioration of the brain.
Over time, people with this condition seem less and less like themselves and exhibit drastic mood swings, unpredictable changes in temperament, inability to recognize loved ones, and increasing helplessness.
People with Alzheimer disease lose most or all of the traits that once made them the individuals they were.
Because people tend to think of personalities and character traits as fixed, it is strange to realize that injury or disease could really change who a person is.
While people can receive a new kidney, lung, or heart to replace a diseased one, they cannot receive a new brain or spinal cord: Many Systems in One The nervous system is a network of fibers that starts in the brain and spinal cord and branches out to the rest of the body, with each branch getting progressively smaller.
The nervous system can be thought of as a pine tree, with the brain and spinal cord forming the trunk and the nerve fibers forming the branches. In the human body, the trunk is called the central nervous system, or CNS, and the branches are known as the peripheral nervous system.
Central nervous system The CNS includes the brain, which is encased in the skull, and the spinal cord, which is a long tube that extends Years Ago: The Famous Case of Phineas Gage Ina Vermont railway foreman named Phineas Gage was helping to expand the nation's growing network of railway tracks.
His job was to make way for new track by blowing up any obstacles in its path, such as rock formations. Gage would use a long rod to push the dynamite down into a hole.
One day, the dynamite exploded too soon, and the iron rod was actually driven into the left front side of his skull. After a brief period of unconsciousness, Gage recovered from the injury, and the wound around the rod healed.
He could still walk, talk, and move as he did before. However, the people around Gage began to notice some major changes in his personality.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a network of nerves and ganglia that controls involuntary physiologic actions and maintains internal homeostasis and stress responses. The ANS innervates structures within the cardiovascular, pulmonary, endocrine, exocrine, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and central nervous systems (CNS) and influences metabolism and thermal regulation. Nervous system procedures Neurologist – a physician specializing in diseases of the brain, spinal cord and nerves. He/she may refer a patient to a neurosurgeon. Autonomic Nervous System Testing (ANS) The autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulates physiologic processes, such as blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, digestion, metabolism, fluid and electrolyte balance, sweating, urination, defecation, sexual response, and other processes.
Before the explosion, Gage had been friendly and hardworking, but after the accident he became indecisive, uncaring, and stubborn.
Gage was just not the same person he had been. Eventually he left his railway job to take part in what were then called freak shows at fairs. Gage's experience provided an important clue about how the brain works. Clearly the prefrontal cortex the front part of the brain where the rod was imbedded was not important for life functions such as breathing, body temperature control, sensory perception, or movement.
Instead, it appeared to be associated with the individual's personality.
Later studies have confirmed that the front portion of the cortex really is where a person's character lies. Damage or injury to this area has the potential to change the qualities that people consider so essential to who they are. Ina railroad worker named Phineas Gage was injured when an explosion drove a steel rod through his cheek and skull.
Gage survived the incident but, according to doctors' reports at that time, he underwent a sudden and complete change of personality. Instead of being the polite, productive, and well-organized worker he had been before the accident, Gage was transformed into a disorganized, impulsive, stubborn slacker who no longer had direction or self-control.
When Gage died, an autopsy showed that the accident had destroyed most of his frontal lobe, the part of the brain that controls planning, emotions, and behavior.Disorders of the nervous system include stroke, infections, such as meningitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and functional disorders, such as headache and epilepsy.
Get the facts on diseases, conditions, tests and procedures. Overview of Nervous System Disorders. See related health topics and resources. What Is It? Obstructive hydrocephalus.
(also called non-communicating hydrocephalus) is a form of hydrocephalus which is caused by some visible blockage in the flow of cerebrospinal fluid.. Hydrocephalus is a condition caused by abnormal flow and/or re-absorption of the cerebrospinal fluid, the water-like liquid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord and fills the open spaces within the.
The brain, spinal cord, and nerves make up the nervous system. Together they control all the workings of the body. When something goes wrong with a part of your nervous system, you can have trouble moving, speaking, swallowing, breathing, or learning.
Nervous system disease, any of the diseases or disorders that affect the functioning of the human nervous system. Everything that humans sense, consider, and effect and all the unlearned reflexes of the body depend on the functioning of the nervous system.
The skeleton and muscles support and. Nervous System Diseases is a guide to diseases of the neurological system, providing an in depth introduction that is understandable even if you do not have a background in science or medicine.
Autonomic Nervous System - Introduction The organs of our body (viscera), such as the heart, intestines and stomach, are regulated by a branch of the nervous system known as the autonomic nervous system.