I was on the flightdeck at the time. We were off the coast of California doing night air qual's.
The distribution and abundance of marine litter were calculated by recordings of bycatch from the pelagic trawling in upper 60 m, from bottom trawling close to the sea floor, and floating marine debris at surface by visual observations. The study is comprehensive regarding coverage and number with registrations from 2, pelagic trawls and 1, bottom trawls, in addition to surface registration between the stations.
Marine litter has been recorded from pelagic and of the bottom trawl catches. In total, visual observations of floating marine debris were recorded during the period. Marine litter has been categorized according to volume or weight of the material types plastic, wood, metal, rubber, glass, paper, and textile.
Marine litter is observed in the entire Barents Sea and distribution vary with material densities, ocean currents and depth. Materials from other categories such as metal, rubber, paper, textile, and glass were observed sporadically.
Recordings of wood dominated surface observations Based on recordings and volume or area covered, mean levels of plastic in the upper 60 m of the Barents Sea were found to 0.
Introduction During the last years marine litter has received more attention as an important threat to animal life and ecosystem health.
Marine litter is defined as any persistent, manufactured, or processed solid material discarded, disposed of, or abandoned in the marine environment UNEP, Inmillion tons of plastic were produced globally, in addition to 61 million metric tons synthetic fibers Lusher et al.
It has been estimated that inbetween 4. Population densities and the effectiveness of waste management systems largely determined which country contributed most to uncaptured waste becoming marine debris Jambeck et al.
As part of the objectives in the Marine Strategy Framework to achieve good environmental status in all EU marine waters bymarine litter is listed as descriptor ten of eleven descriptors important for this goal. The aim for marine litter is to ascertain that properties and quantities of marine litter do not cause harm to the coastal and marine environment EU-MSDF, Marine debris and microplastics have been reported everywhere people have investigated its occurrence in the marine environment; at surface, in the water column, in biota, at sea floor and in sediments GESAMP, ; UNEP, It is a classic transboundary issue, in many cases unseen, but end up in the environment, probably to a large degree on the sea floor.
Large variation in occurrence and densities of marine litter at the sea floor have been reported from different areas, dependent on distance to coastline, population densities, distance to shipping routes, rivers, topography, water currents, and circulations. Material densities, fouling processes, size and shape are important for transport distance and sedimentation rate.
Highest densities of marine litter have been found in submarine canyons, while continental shelves and ocean ridges have the lowest densities Galgani et al. The main sources of marine litter in Nordic Seas are sea based from maritime activities, such as fisheries, shipping, oil and gas exploration, and tourism.
Discharges of human consumables can origin from both sea- and land based activities UNEP, Population densities and intensity of the marine activities are important for how large input of marine litter may be Pham et al. Abandoned fish gear lead to ghost fishing and entanglement Gilardi et al. Species like sea birds, sea mammals, turtles, and fish are susceptible to such effects ibid.
Since the s the Barents Sea has gone from a situation with high fishing pressure, cold conditions and low demersal fish stock levels, to the current situation with high levels of demersal fish stocks, reduced fishing pressure, and warmer conditions ICES, As boreal species like cod, migrate northwards for feeding, cod fisheries also moves in to the northern areas.
Time-series recorded for the last two decades show that the levels of persistent organic pollutants have been stable or decreasing ICES, With regards to marine litter, increased concern is directed to this area as oceanographic modeling indicate the Barents Sea to be a potential gyre for marine litter accumulation van Sebille et al.
Plastic, as other floating marine debris, could be transported by currents along the coast and in to the open sea Barnes et al.
This study presents a large-scale recording of marine litter performed in the joint Norwegian—Russian ecosystem monitoring surveys in the period from to We investigated spatial pattern of marine litter taken from the two types of trawls pelagic trawl: The mean depth is about m and the maximum depth in the western Barents Sea is about m.
In the western part the Bear Island Trough provides a deeper connection with the Norwegian Sea, and in the northeast the St.Beach and ocean litter. You're at your favourite beach wiggling your feet in the sand, sifting a handful of shells to look at, and listening to the seagulls' plaintive cries.
I have been a cynical towards people who worry about smart meters for a couple years, even was an early adopter nearly 5 years ago.
The last year I have been experiencing a chronic sore throat that my doctors can’t explain, my kids are developing learning disabilities, among other strange health issues.
UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH CRITERIA Aluminium This report contains the collective views of an international group of experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated policy of .
Bull shark Carcharhinus leucas. WHAT TO LOOK FOR: A stocky heavy-bodied gray shark with a short bluntly-rounded snout. COLOR: Gray with a faint white band on its flank.
The fin tips of young sharks are often dusky. Sometimes a bull shark's back appears grazed, but these areas are actually bald patches caused by fluke infections that result in loss of dermal denticles from the skin. The one process ongoing that will take millions of years to correct is the loss of genetic and species diversity by the destruction of natural habitats.
review of the current state of knowledge regarding marine litter in wastes dumped at sea under the london convention and protocol final report.