The normal interest has been stimulated from time to time by ascendance of various theories of history predicting that economies based on private enterprise must contain an inherent drift toward increasing economic concentration. Marx, for example, saw not only universal monopoly but also extreme concentration of wealth and income as ultimate and inevitable results of capitalism. The issue of economic concentration as it has emerged is essentially twofold in nature.
The literature of the Industrial Revolution includes essays, fiction, and poetry that respond to the enormous growth of technology as well as the labor and demographic changes it fostered.
Having observed the adoption of such new technologies as the steam engine and the blast furnace, the Scottish intellectual Thomas Carlyle described this period as the "Mechanical Age," reflecting his belief that the machine was the dominant symbol of his era, one representing a profound change in both the physical and mental activities of his society.
The Industrial Revolution figured prominently across a broad range of literary genres. While social critics such as Carlyle, John Ruskin, Matthew Arnold, and Henry Adams examined the cultural changes that accompanied the machine, novelists ranging from Charles Dickens and Elizabeth Gaskell to Rebecca Harding Davis and Herman Melville provided a realistic treatment of modern working conditions.
During the initial stages of the Industrial Revolution in England, the literati, for the most part, supported the new discoveries of science, often promoting their application in literary reviews. By the close of the eighteenth century, however, the early romantics began to view the emerging technology in a different light.
In his Letters upon the Aesthetical Education of ManFriedrich Schiller argued that the machine was a threat to individual freedom and a destructive force on contemporary culture. Likewise, William Wordsworth, in his Preface to the Second Edition of "Lyrical Ballads"asserted that the rise of technology blunted the mind "to a state of almost savage torpor.
Thackeray also presented accurate accounts of the industrialism of Victorian society.
The transfer of new technologies across the Atlantic also shaped the development of literature in the United States. As in England, many of the initial responses welcomed the new technology, finding it indispensable to the economic growth of the fledgling nation.
Thomas Jefferson, for instance, writing near the close of the eighteenth century, believed that the machine would blend harmoniously into the open countryside of the American Republic rather than produce the overcrowded and polluted cities of Europe.
Critic Leo Marx contended that, with the exception of apologists for the Southern slavery system, there was little effective opposition to the forces of urbanization and industrialism.
Writers such as Walt Whitman and Ralph Waldo Emerson, for the most part, embraced the new technology, finding in the railroad a vehicle for uniting the country and furthering democratic ideals.
However, such a response was not universally shared. Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, and Mark Twain, among others, provided alternative perspectives, often critiquing the materialistic value systems that accompanied industrialism through the metaphors, themes, and details of their works.
The issues surrounding the relationship between technology and culture have continued to interest critics and writers well into the twentieth century. Not only have scholars concentrated on the canonical works by major authors of the period, but they have increasingly focused their attention on contemporary reactions found in magazines, newspapers, and popular novels in an effort to better understand the culture of the period.
Contemporary writers also look to literary figures of the Industrial Revolution as they address similar concerns of the role of the machine in society.Economic & Financial Modelling • Summer 1 Measures of Competition and Concentration in the Banking Industry: a Review of the .
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Jacob A. Bikker and Katharina Haaf. 2 Summer • Economic & Financial Modelling conditions and to calculate the degree of concentration in (banking) markets, as presented in the literature. Bachelor of Science in Industrial Design: Concentration in Product Design and Development Toggle Bachelor of Science in Industrial Design: Concentration in Product Design and Development.
Concentration in Literature – ENGL Associate Degree for Transfer Roadmap. I ndustrial concentration occurs when a small number of companies sell a large percentage of an industry's product. The most widely used measure of concentration is the so-called four-firm concentration ratio, which is the percentage of the industry's product sold by the four largest producers.
Review of empirical literature on industrial concentration Suttons work looks at the numbers of firms in the market and their shares of production in the market and the relationship between that in a different oligopoly models where a small number of firms controls the majority of the market share, the study also looks at the difference between horizontally, homogenous and vertically differentiated products.