His great grandfather was Isaac Bernayschief rabbi of Hamburg.
On Freud Psychoanalysis was given birth by Sigmund Freud at the turn of the century. Freud conceptualized the mind, metaphorically, as an ancient, buried ruin which had to been unearthed much like an archeologist would unearth the treasures of an ancient civilization.
Freud's influence can be traced from his hard-core natural science background as a student of neurology, as well as his rarely acknowledged debt to Franz Brentano also a teacher of Edmund Husserlwho taught Freud to understand that consciousness is always intentional.
This tension between a more phenomenological approach to understanding the mind and Freud's inclination toward natural scientific explanation is a tension which exists in all of his work and writings, as well as throughout all of psychoanalytic theory following Freud. In fact, this tension between understanding and explanation can be said to be a tension which exists, whether acknowledged or not, in all of the human sciences see, for example, Dilthey.
Freud's version of psychoanalysis had its predecessor in the work with hysterics conducted by neurologists Jean-Martin Charcot and Hippolyte Bernheim, who, using hypnosis, discovered that the origins of hysteria were mental rather than overtly physiological.
Freud's colleague, Josef Breuer, first began using his modified technique of hypnosis to treat the famous hysteric patient with the alias 'Anna O,' who we now know to be Bertha Pappenheim.
This technique involved placing the patient in a hypnotic trance and removing the symptoms through the use of posthypnotic suggestion. Freud, a poor hypnotist, became especially adept at listening to these patients, and, along with Breuer, discovered that the origins of the hysteria appeared to involve emotionally charged events in the patients' past.
When the patient, through talking, followed associations in her memory, she was able to recover the forgotten event, which led to the cure. Freud eventually gave up the process of using hypnotism for the use of a technique he came to call "free association," in which the patient was encouraged to put aside all inhibitions and follow her associations, which would eventually, even without hypnosis, lead to the recovery of unconscious memory.
From the period of to roughlyFreud's innovations led to the development of his theory, all of which were developed from his clinical work with patients.
Initially theoretical formulations led to the topographic model of the psyche, which Freud categorized into three different subsections: Further, Freud became more and more sophisticated in his technique of psychoanalysis, and he became particularly adept at using his patients's subjective impressions of him to help the patient to discover the origins of the unconscious memory or memories which led to the symptoms from which she suffered.
It followed that Freud developed a theory that patients resisted remembering the trauma, and this 'resistance' was evident in disruptions of the free association process.
Such disruptions constituted what Freud called 'defenses,' and, most notably, the defenses involved what Freud called 'transference,' the transference of conflictual thoughts and feelings to the analyst.
Freud also came to acknowledge that unconscious events are traceable in other phenomena, as well, including dreams, slips of the tongue, and in jokes. From his work with patients, Freud was eventually led to develop a more and more sophisticated theory of the human psyche which became increasingly understood according to a developmental model.
Freud, by observing his patients, found that many of the memories uncovered by his patients were sexual in nature and reverted back to early childhood memories. From these observations, Freud developed his controversial theory of childhood sexuality.
Freud eventually justified these observations with a generalized theory of an instinctual drive, which became the foundation for his theory.
At first, Freud felt that such instincts were largely sexual in nature. Later, he conceded that instincts also involved aggressive drives, as well as sexual drives.
In any case, Freud's development model, a theory of 'psychosexual development,' traced the development of childhood seuxality through various stages, organized according to 'erogenous zones,' bodily zones which are highly sexually charged at certain stages in development: Using the metaphor of a hydraulic system, Freud imagined the instincts as consisting of a form of energy he called 'libido.
This 'primary process thinking' largely consists of phantasy, omnipotent thinking, and exists outside of linear time -- in short, it demands immediate gratification.
As the child develops through the various psychosexual stages -- oral, anal, and phallic -- the child's libido is increasingly 'repressed' by parental figures who train the child to delay gratification and to channel the libido in ways that are socially appropriate.
This pure libidinal drive Freud called the 'id. With the formation of the unconscious, what is left-over in the conscious of the person is called 'secondary process thinking' by Freud.
Central to Freud's theory is the "Oedipal complex. With the onset of the phallic stage, Freud argued, the child's genitals become libidinally charged, and this leads to a desire for the parent of the opposite sex and a feeling of competitiveness with the parent of the same sex.
The particular organization of these conflicts depends on how the child has negotiated the earlier psychosexual stages. Freud felt that the Oedipus complex is ultimately resolved, at least for males, by "castration anxiety.
From this resolution of the conflict, the child develops an "ideal" self based on the internalization of parental values. This "ego ideal" results in the develop of the "super-ego," which constitutes the often unrealistic ideals toward which the child will strive and which inevitably conflict with the libidinal drives of the 'id.
Thus, the "ego" is governed by the "reality principle," which must use various defenses to negotiate between the unrealistic motives of the "superego" "ego ideal" and the "id," governed by the "pleasure principle. Ultimately, for Freud, the human being is in perpetual conflict with itself, torn between one's animal nature and the ideals of one's culture internalized with the values of one's parents.
As mentioned previously, Freud was very protective of his theory, and he entered into conflicts with various colleagues who offered alternative theoretical perspectives, including Alfred AdlerCarl JungOtto Rankand Sandor Ferenczi. All of these brilliant thinkers anticipated what would become central themes in contemporary psychoanalytic thought, even in Freud's later thought, although their contributions to these discoveries are often overlooked.
Further, as mentioned above, Freud's psychoanalytic theory is only the beginning. Even those faithful to Freud would significantly expand upon and, ultimately, transform Freud's origin insights into the nature of psychological life.Sigmund Freud, (born May 6, , Freiberg, Moravia, Austrian Empire [now Příbor, Czech Republic]—died September 23, , London, England), Austrian neurologist, founder of psychoanalysis..
Freud may justly be called the most influential intellectual legislator of his age. His creation of psychoanalysis was at once a theory of the human psyche, a therapy for the relief of its . Sigmund Freud (/ f r ɔɪ d / FROYD; German: [ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt]; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May – 23 September ) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst..
Freud was born to Galician Jewish parents in the Moravian town of Freiberg, in the Austrian. Author’s Bio. translated by Gabrielle Shorr. Sublimation, Sublimierung, the word is in Freud, taken from his discourse on the art of his r-bridal.com Kant, the sublime was distinguished from beauty by the tension that persisted in it while subsiding in beauty.
Sigmund Freud begins his long essay, Civilization and Its Discontents, by describing his inability to understand what he calls “religious feeling.” Freud is not religious himself, though he has good friends who are.
Freud believes that religion is central to how societies function – even. Civilization and its Discontents Essay Sample. Introduction. Sigmund Freud is one of the greatest scholars of the time who has contributed to the development and understanding of human beings.
Civilization and Its Discontent was Freud's last major work. It also happened to be the most influential of his works. It also happened to be the most influential of his works. In this work, Freud expounds on his earlier work on the sense of guilt of the superego.